中国文化核心词

2016-11-25 11:38:24

KEY CHINESE CONCEPTS

和而不同

/hé’érbùtóng/

Harmony But Not Uniformity

在尊重事物差异性和多样性的基础上实现整体的和谐共存。“同”与“和”是对待、安顿社会群体的两种态度。“同”指对事物差异性的抹杀,“和”则意味着对事物差异性的保存与尊重。不同的事物彼此间相互辅助、补充,才能组成一个充满生机、富于创造性的和谐整体。

The term means achieving overall harmonious coexistence on the basis of respecting differences and diversity. “Uniformity” and “harmony” are two different attitudes to treating and accommodating social groups. “Uniformity” means obliterating differences between everything, while “harmony” keeps and respects the differences. Only by allowing different things to complement and supplement each other can a harmonious, vibrant and creative whole be formed.引例 Citations:

夫和实生物,同则不继。(《国语·郑语》) (不同的事物相互配合而生成新的事物,只有相同的事物则难以有延续。)

Harmony begets new things; while uniformity gives no continuation. (Discourse on Governance of the States)

君子和而不同,小人同而不和。(《论语·子路》)

(君子与人和谐相处却不会盲目附和,小人盲目附和而不能真正和谐相处。)

A man of virtue pursues harmony but does not seek uniformity; a petty man seeks uniformity but does not pursue harmony. (The Analects)

中庸

/zhōngyōng/

Zhongyong (Golden Mean)

孔子和儒家所肯定的最高德行。“中”指言行没有过或不及的状态或标准。凡事都有某种限度,超过和达不到这个限度都是不好的。“庸”包含两个相关的含义:其一指平常,其二指恒常。“中”只有在平常日用之中才能恒常不易。“中庸”即指在人伦日用中始终遵循、符合无过无不及的标准。

Zhongyong (golden mean) was considered to be the highest level of virtue by Confucius and Confucian scholars. Zhong (中) means moderate in one’s words and deeds. Everything has its limits, and neither exceeding nor falling short of the limits is desirable. Yong (庸) has two meanings. One is common or ordinary and the other is unchanging. Moderation can be maintained over a long time only when one practices it in everyday life. Zhongyong means the standard of moderation that one should follow in dealing with others, and in one’s everyday conduct.引例 Citations:中庸之为德也,其至矣乎!(《论语·雍也》) (中庸作为一种道德,是最高的准则吧!) Zhongyong is the highest of virtues. (The Analects)

中庸者,不偏不倚。无过不及而平常之理。(朱熹《中庸章句》)

(中庸就是不偏颇,没有过或不及的平常的道理。)

Zhongyong does not bend one way or the other; it is the common principle of neither exceeding nor falling short of the line. (Zhu Xi: Commentary on The Doctrine of the Mean)

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